Title: Molecular typing and history of the provins roses horticultural group.
Authors: Gardes, L.; Heizmann, P.; Joyaux, F.
Authors affiliation: CIRAD - Forets, Guyane, Fr.
Published in: European Journal of Horticultural Science (2005), 70(4), pages 162-172.
Abstract: “A mol. typing anal. by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed on the large collection of Gallica roses from the conservatory of the ‘Roseraie de la Cour de Commer’ (France; 281 cultivars). A Principal Components Anal. (PCA) of the PCR data produced a map of distances between varieties. The identification of varieties by date of creation and breeder reveals the occurrence of two allele flows in opposite directions during the domestication history (XIXth-XXth centuries) of this horticultural group. The first flow corresponds to an increased mol. polymorphism of PCR fragments resulting from a higher heterozygosity. This increased polymorphism is due to extensive crosses between Gallica varieties and selection of cultivars with original morphologies and hybrid vigour. The second flow corresponds to achievement of inter-specific crosses of Gallica (4n) varieties by Rosa chinensis (2n) and parent cultivars; these crosses result in introgression of chinenses characters (red coloration of young follicles, recurrence) together with some decrease of the mol. polymorphism probably due to some redn. of poly-ploidy and/or heterozygosity. The description in the horticultural literature of the pollination practices suggests that the many Gallica varieties corresponding to the first allele flow were created by productive breeders using simple cross intraspecific pollinations between Gallica cultivars. The few varieties corresponding to the second flow were created by careful, breeders who practised strict interspecific pollinations between Gallicas and Chinenses roses.”