Smoke may need red light

Title: Stimulation of Empress Tree Seed Germination by Liquid Smoke.

Authors: Todorovic, Sladana; Giba, Zlatko; Zivkovic, Suzana; Grubisic, Dragoljub; Konjevic, Radomir.

Authors affiliation: Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.

Published in: Plant Growth Regulation (2005), 47(2-3), pages 141-148.

Abstract: “The germination of Empress tree (Paulownia tomentosa Steud.) seeds is phytochrome-controlled. Liq. smoke could not induce germination in darkness but red light irradn. of liq. smoke imbibed seeds induced a high percentage of germination. Maximum germination was achieved at liq. smoke concn. of 0.1% (vol./vol.) when present during the imbibition phase or during the phase of phytochrome activity. The light requirement of these seeds could be completely substituted by exogenously applied gibberellins. In the presence of liq. smoke, optimal concns. of GA3, GA4, and GA9 necessary for inducing germination were several times lower than in the controls, while that of GA7 was equally active when applied at a concn. one order of magnitude lower. The inhibitory effect of the applied growth retardants was strongly reduced and liq. smoke, in the presence of retardants, allowed light-induced germination, if applied simultaneously or after retardants treatment.”

I have the full paper. The liquid smoke that the authors used is described at:

For more information about liquid smoke see: